Frequently Asked Questions

What is is a portal where anybody can download a single, consolidated file of publicly available reference data for ISO 17442 legal entity identifiers issued by any of the organizations sponsored by financial regulators as pre-Local Operating Units (pre-LOUs) of the Global Legal Entity Identifier System (GLEIS).

Each pre-LOU publishes its own file of referenced data for the legal entity identifiers issued by that organization; at you can download a single file that contains the data from all of these organizations.

The Global Legal Entity Identifier System (GLEIS) is part of a larger collective public/private sector effort in progress around the world to provide greater visibility into the entire global financial system.

To support this process, we have created to provide greater transparency for all users in the public and private sectors. exists for the public good, particularly for the benefit of parties who wish to use the available reference data regarding pre-LEIs. on a daily basis collects the pre-LEI data published by the pre-LOUs, consolidates into a single file using a common data schema, and publishes the result for anybody to download for free. It provides a convenient way to obtain consolidated pre-LEI data from all LOUs rather than requiring each party to download from the pre-LOUs individually and then needing to spend resources standardizing the data. is a project with joint support from GS1, Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), FIX Protocol Ltd., and Tahoe Blue Ltd.

For more information about what a legal entity identifier is, see Questions about the LEI and the Global LEI System

For more information about the site and what you can do here, see Questions about

For more information about the data available at, see Questions about the data at

For more information about the organizations that have made available, see Questions about the organizations behind

Questions about the LEI and the Global LEI System

What is an ISO 17442 Legal Entity Identifier (LEI)?

A Legal Entity Identifier (LEI) is a unique 20-character string that conforms to the ISO 17442 standard, “Financial Services - Legal Entity Identifier (LEI).” Each LEI corresponds to a legal entity, that is, a legal person or structure that is organized under the laws of any jurisdiction (excluding natural persons). The intent of the LEI is to uniquely identify a legal entity on a worldwide basis — no two legal entities anywhere in the world will have the same LEI, and for any legal entity there is only one LEI to identify it.

What is the Global Legal Entity Identifier System (GLEIS)?

The Global Legal Entity Identifier System (GLEIS) is a system envisioned by the G20 and Financial Stability Board (FSB) to register legal entities and assign LEIs on a global basis. The GLEIS is overseen by a Regulatory Oversight Committee (ROC) comprised of financial regulators from jurisdictions across the globe, and will be coordinated by a Central Operating Unit (COU) operated by the Global Legal Entity Foundation (GLEIF), a not-for-profit foundation to be established under Swiss law. The COU will coordinate and oversee the actions of Local Operating Units (LOUs), which will serve end users in local jurisdictions to register legal entities and assign LEIs.

Does the Global Legal Entity Identifier System (GLEIS) exist today?

The GLEIS is not yet fully operational. At this time, the Regulatory Oversight Committee (ROC) exists, and is working to establish the Global Legal Entity Foundation (GLEIF) which will in turn establish the Central Operating Unit (COU) and establish the framework and governance for Local Operating Units (LOUs) to function within the system.

If the GLEIS is not yet fully operational, how can there be LEIs available here at

Financial market regulators in certain countries already require the use of an identifier for specific types of financial reporting. Technically, such identifiers are not “LEIs” because they are issued prior to the full establishment of the Global Legal Entity Identifier System (GLEIS). To support these regulations, the Regulatory Oversight Committee of the GLEIS has provided a framework within which a financial regulator in a given jurisdiction may authorize or “sponsor” an organization to act as a “pre-LOU.” A pre-LOU is an organization that can register legal entities and assign identifiers that conform to the ISO 17442 standard during the period of time prior to the GLEIS becoming fully operational (hence, “pre”). Each pre-LOU may have its own name for the identifiers it issues, and collectively the identifiers issued by all pre-LOUs are sometimes called “pre-LEIs” to emphasize that they have been issued by a pre-LOU prior to the full establishment of the GLEIS. All of the data available here at is pre-LEI data.

Pre-LOUs are asked to follow guidelines issued by the Regulatory Oversight Committee designed to ensure that all of the pre-LEIs issued by pre-LOUs will be eligible to become true LEIs once the GLEIS is fully operational.

What legal entities are identified today by a pre-LEI?

Any legal entity (other than a natural person) may register to obtain a pre-LEI. At this time, the legal entities that have obtained pre-LEIs are primarily those legal entities subject to financial reporting regulations that require the use of an ISO 17442-compliant identifier.

Who are the pre-LOUs?

The about page Original Sources section contains the names of the pre-LOUs consolidated on this site along with links to their web sites. Each of these pre-LOUs publishes on a free basis the complete list of the pre-LEIs they issue along with their reference data. It is this data that is consolidated into a single file here at

There may be other pre-LOUs that have been sponsored by financial regulators, but are not yet issuing pre-LEIs. When new pre-LOUs begin issuing pre-LEIs and publishing their reference data, we plan to incorporate that data into the consolidated files available here at

Questions about

What is the purpose of exists for the public good, particularly the benefit of parties who are interested in using the available reference data regarding pre-LEIs. on a daily basis collects the pre-LEI data published by the pre-LOUs, consolidates into a single file using a common data schema, and publishes the result for anybody to download for free. It provides a convenient alternative to obtaining pre-LEI data directly from each of the pre-LOUs individually.

Is a pre-LOU? Can I register a legal entity and obtain a pre-LEI at

No. is not a pre-LOU, and so it does not provide the service of registering legal entities or issuing pre-LEIs.

Is the same as the Central Operating Unit (COU) of the Global LEI System (GLEIS)?

No. The Central Operating Unit (COU) will be established by the Global LEI Foundation (GLEIF) according to a process established by the Regulatory Oversight Committee. This process will take several months to complete, and is not in any way part of that process.

Is a “pre-COU”?

No. Neither the FSB nor the Regulatory Oversight Committee has indicated that there will be any “pre-COU” established. is an independent activity of the sponsoring organizations, provided as a free service for anybody interested in a convenient way to obtain pre-LEI data.

Is in any way affiliated with or sponsored by the FSB, the Regulatory Oversight Committee, or any financial regulator?

No. is an independent activity of the sponsoring organizations, provided as a free service for anybody interested in a convenient way to obtain pre-LEI data.

Questions about the data at

What is the data available at makes available a single consolidated file containing the pre-LEI reference data published by all pre-LOUs. For each pre-LEI, the 20-character ISO 17442-compliant identifier provided in the pre-LOU source data is given, along with pre-LOU reference data elements that are comparable to the entity-identifying reference data requirements defined in ISO 17442. These reference data elements are “business card” data about the legal entity: its legal name, address, etc. There are also data elements that relate to the lifecycle status of the pre-LEI. Finally, there are some data elements that are particular to a specific pre-LOU and these are preserved as well in the consolidated data.

What is the format of pre-LEI data at

Pre-LEI data available at is published as an XML file, according to a schema defined by One of the challenges in consuming pre-LEI data is that there does not yet exist a standard format for LEI reference data. Each pre-LOU has defined its own XML schema for publishing pre-LEI data. The consolidated data file at maps the data as published by each pre-LOU into a common schema that is used for the consolidated data file. This is one of the benefits of using the consolidated data from all pre-LEI data is presented in a common schema.

Does validate or “clean” the data from the pre-LOUs?

No. The only function provided by is to map the data from each pre-LOU file format into a common set of XML elements used in the consolidated file. The name of an XML element may change when going from the pre-LOU file to the consolidated file, but the content is never changed by Each data element in the consolidated file is character-for-character identical to the corresponding data element in the original pre-LOU data.

There are two exceptions to this rule. First, when pre-LOU data names a country using the full name of the country, converts this to the corresponding ISO 3166 two-letter country code in the consolidated file. Second, since the conventions for indicating the status of pre-LEI registrations vary by pre-LOU (and discussions are ongoing regarding the definition of status codes and their harmonization), the “LEI Status” data element in the consolidated file is a copy of the registration record status code from each respective pre-LOU, but with a character prefix prepended to clearly indicate the source of the status code. For example “Validated” from CICI appears as “CICI-Validated”, and “Issued” from GEI appears as “GEI-Issued.” These are the only “transformation” of data done by that affects the content of data.

Does attempt to detect if two pre-LEIs have been assigned to the same legal entity (a “duplicate”)?

No. The pre-LEIs in the consolidated data file are in one-to-one correspondence with the pre-LEIs in the pre-LOU data files. If pre-LOU data contains duplicates, then so will the consolidated data. We encourage parties who are experimenting with duplicate-detection technology to use data as a convenient means to obtain all pre-LOU data for purposes of detecting duplicates.

A section of the site has been provided for parties who wish to perform analyses on the consolidated data (e.g., applying various duplicate-checking algorithms and approaches) to upload and post the results of their analyses to in order to share the results of various de-duplication methodologies. Results of such analyses that are posted are in no way intended to be taken as definitive identification of duplicates. Whereas these results might help inform the possibilities of duplicates, the main intent is to provide a means for the exploration and development of various approaches and techniques for the detection of possible duplicates in the consolidated data.

I think some of the reference data regarding a specific legal entity is incorrect. How do I get it corrected? is not the originator of any of the pre-LEI reference data. merely consolidates what is published by the pre-LOUs. Any challenges or corrections to pre-LEI reference data must be conveyed to the pre-LOU that published that particular pre-LEI.

Are there restrictions on the use of data available at

No. The FSB has established policies for pre-LOUs, which state that pre-LOUs should provide free access to pre-LEI reference data and that the data should be free from Intellectual Property restrictions. In turn, makes the consolidated reference data file available to the public with no restrictions upon use.

Questions about the Organizations Behind

Who is responsible for is a project with joint support from GS1, the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), FIX Protocol Limited, and Tahoe Blue Ltd.

Why does exist?

The four organizations behind are all keenly interested in the success of the Global LEI System. We have joined forces to create in order to fill a perceived need to make pre-LEI data available on a consolidated basis, and to explore issues that need to be addressed in order to make the GLEIS effort successful.

Who is GS1?

GS1 is a global, not-for-profit, user-driven, neutral organization providing standards and systems for global identification and reference data since 1973. GS1's standards for product identification and electronic commerce are the most widely accepted standards of their kind in the world. Since its founding GS1 has grown to include 1.5 million end user organizations in 150 countries who participate in GS1 through GS1's 111 country-based Member Organizations (MOs). Through the work of its end user members, GS1 sets standards for identification of physical products, legal entities, and electronic communication that are used in twenty-five different segments of the global economy. GS1 also operates three global, federated systems for registration of globally unique identifiers and associated reference data, facilitating straight-through processing of electronic commerce transactions on a worldwide basis. GS1 and its country-based Member Organizations employ 2200 people around the globe.

Who is Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)?

Corporation for National Research Initiatives® (CNRI) is a not-for-profit organization formed to undertake, foster, and promote research in the public interest. Activities center around strategic development of network-based information technologies, providing leadership and funding for information infrastructure research and development.

CNRI engages in system and technology demonstration projects in order to further the design and implementation of selected infrastructure components for new computing- and communications-based applications. Current projects include the Handle System for assigning, managing, and resolving persistent identifiers for digital objects and other Internet resources, research in digital libraries and networked information technologies, and a general purpose data registration system being developed under a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan foundation that will be used to improve and harmonize the data from pre-LOUs for purposes of identifying potential duplicates and aiding in analysis.

Who is FIX Protocol Limited?

FIX Protocol Limited (FPL) is the non-profit industry association responsible for defining, managing and promoting increased usage of FIX as an enabler for electronic trading. This benefits the industry by facilitating greater transparency, straight-through-processing and cost savings. FIX is the de facto messaging standard for the electronic communication of equity, listed derivative and foreign exchange trades and is developing momentum within the fixed income markets. Technical and business professionals from FPL member firms coordinate their activities and organize their work through a series of committees, subcommittees, and working groups, all overseen by a Global Steering Committee. FPL's groups aim to ensure consistency of protocol application as it is extended into new markets, asset classes, and phases of the trade lifecycle. In addition to the rigorous engineering and technical efforts undertaken to ensure the ongoing applicability of the protocol to financial-market systems, the FIX Protocol benefits from an energetic educational and marketing effort that seeks to keep the specification viable, relevant, and responsive to the needs of market participants.

Who is Tahoe Blue Ltd?

Tahoe Blue is a private company dedicated to improving the health, efficiency and transparency of the financial system. Its partners have extensive and successful track records in providing guidance on the implementation of risk management solutions for the financial industry. Tahoe Blue advises both regulators and financial institutions, and assists in developing risk management initiatives for the good of the system and the health and productivity of the private sector. Tahoe Blue professionals are adept at planning and developing large projects that require financial subject matter expertise, the ability to communicate with stakeholders, and deep technical knowledge of analytics, data management, and information systems. Its principals have participated actively and continuously in the G20 LEI Private Sector Preparatory Group (PSPG) pro bono since its inception.